بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين
In the previous lesson we learnt that words can be rendered into particular states depending on the grammatical position a word is in. And a grammatical position of a word will usually depend on a governing agent causing that word to be in a particular state.
Our first state that we learnt was رفع (a word in the state of رفع is called مرفوع). A word that is مرفوع will be signified with a dammah ( ٌ ).
The example we looked at was ُالحمد, and we found that الحمد is in the state of رفع, and the reason for this is because it's grammatical position is مبتدأ. So what causes a مبتدأ to be مرفوع is the mere fact that a مبتدأ occurs in the beginning of a nominal sentence, thus by virtue of being in the beginning it is مرفوع.
Nominal Sentence: One that starts with a noun.
The مبتدأ: is that noun at the beginning of a nominal sentence.
Governing agent of مبتدأ: being at the beginning of a nominal sentence.
Grammatical state of مبتدأ: is رفع.
Sign on a مرفوع word: Dammah ( ُ ).
Breakdown of الحمد:
مبتدأ، مرفوع بالضمة الظاهرة
Mubtada which is Marfoo' with an apparent Dammah.
Phew... hope that makes sense.
Now, what we must know is that every مبتدأ requires a خَبَر (Khabar). So in English we will say: every subject requires a predicate.
A predicate or خبر is basicly the extra information about the subject or the مبتدأ.
For example ٌالبيتُ كبير. Here the word البيت is the مبتدأ and كبير is the خبر. The house is big. The house is the subject of the sentence whilst big is the predicate, so you are providing extra information about the house by stating it is big. Another way of looking at it is that a typical مبتدأ and خبر construct performs the function of an 'is' construct. So the house 'is' big. Don't get this confused with an adjectival phrase, i.e. 'the big house'. In a مبتدأ and خبر construct we are not 'describing' the house as big we are merely stating that it 'is' big. Difference. We will look at adjectival phrases when they pop up in the Quran.
Now, what do we learn about a typical مبتدأ and خبر construct:
Rule 1: The مبتدأ must be a noun, whilst the خبر can either be noun or a verb. Also the خبر can be a single word, a sequence of words, or a sentence. We will study more complex versions later.
Rule 2: usually the مبتدأ will precede the خبر. So the خبر will usually come after the مبتدأ.
Rule 3: usually the مبتدأ will be definite whilst the خبر will be indefinite. How do we know that this مبتدأ, namely البيت is definite, exactly! Lesson 1 - an ال will make a noun definite (there are other signs of definite wihc we will study later). And how do we know the خبر is indefinite - the tanween.
Rule 3: both the مبتدأ and the خبر are in the state of رفع so they will be مرفوع, and since the sign of رفع is a dammah, both will end with a dammah. However we learnt that the governing agent of the مبتدأ is the fact that it is in the beginning of the sentence which is what is making it مرفوع. But what is the governing agent of خبر? If you haven't guessed it already, it is the مبتدأ which governs the خبر causing it to become مرفوع and thus accept a dammah.
Rule 4: both the مبتدأ and the خبر will agree in gender. So what ever gender the مبتدأ is the خبر will follow suite. Wow... I can imagine so many people thinking what the...?! How can words have a gender?! Well here's another thing you learn about the Arabic language, which infact is quite common in some other languages too.
So let's look at some examples, the word البيت is a masculine word, how do we know this? Because it does not have any signs of femininty. So one sign of femininty is the ة (taa marbuta), there are others and we will explore them later. So take a look at the word المدرسة (al-madrasatu/the school) it is feminine as it ends with a ة, so the خبر will reflect the same gender: المدرسة كبيرة.
Rule 5: both will agree in number/plurality. For example البيتان كبيران (al-baytaani kabeeraani /the two houses are big).
Note: these rules are not set in stone. This is the basis for a typical مبتدأ and خبر sentence. With a good enough reason there are possible exceptions.
So we've learnt the that الحمد is the مبتدأ, so where is the خبر?
Look out for the next lesson and all shall be revealed. With the help of Allah of course.
May Allah reward you and I both.